A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Aliasing - less than optimal resampling that causes "jaggies" and Moire effects.
Aligning - the process of finding the correct places relative to each other for all images that should contribute to a panorama.
Alpha channel - an image channel containing a mask or selection.
Aspect Ratio - the ratio (proportion) between height and width of an image.
Autopano - Autopano is software for Windows and Linux by Alexandre Jenny which automatically generates control points from groups of photographs.
Autopano pro - Autopano pro was an integrated panorama stitching software for Windows, Mac OS and Linux by Alexandre Jenny and later Kolor/GoPro which automatically finds and stitches images.
Banding - Visible steps in smooth gradients.
Barrel distortion - A distortion produced by the lens itself which causes straight lines to be bent outwards.
Blending - the process of overlaying two or more images such, that any image contributes a certain amount to the result image.
BMP - BitMaP format (BMP) is an image format mostly used on windows.
Bracketing - Shooting more than one picture of the same scene but at different exposure
Ca - A type of lens error generating colored fringes.
Camera response curve - a curve showing the relation between amount of incoming light and image pixel values of a digital camera.
CCD - A distortion produced by the lens itself which causes straight lines to be bent outwards.
Chromatic aberration - A type of lens error generating colored fringes.
Colour profile - Color profiles describe the color attributes of a particular device or viewing equipment by defining a mapping between the source or target color space to a common profile connection space.
Contrast - the difference in visual properties that makes an object distinguishable from other objects and the background
Contrast Blending - A technique to blend several exposure bracketed images in one image
Control points - are used to identify matching features in adjacent images.
Crop factor - the ratio between the size of the CCD sensor in your camera and the size of a typical 35mm film frame.
Cropped TIFF - TIFF flavor where the image canvas includes a smaller image at an offset within the larger area.
Cubic Projection - A subcase of the Rectilinear Projection used as the input source projection for some fully spherical panorama viewers.
Cylindrical panorama - A panoramic image in Cylindrical Projection.
Cylindrical Projection - A projection capable of mapping 360 degrees horizontally by roughly 120 degrees vertically with acceptable distortion.
Dcraw - an ANSI C program written by Dave Coffin to decode any raw image from any digital camera on any computer running any operating system
Depth of Field - The distance in front of and behind the focus distance where the image blur is not recognizable.
Diffraction - The physical property of light which causes image blur depending from the aperture used.
DPI - Dots Per Inch - Pixel density when printing images.
DSLR spherical resolution - What spherical panorama resolution can I obtain from a certain fisheye/camera combination.
Dynamic range - The ratio in brightness of the brightest highlight to the darkest shadow that are accurately captured in a scene.
Enblend - overlays multiple images so as to make the seam invisible
Enfuse - a command-line program used to merge different exposures of the same scene to produce an image that looks very much like a tonemapped image (without the halos) but requires no creation of an HDR image
Entrance pupil - The special point that you have to rotate your camera around, to avoid parallax errors. Commonly (and falsely) referred to as the Nodal Point.
Equirectangular Panini -
Equirectangular Projection - A projection capable of mapping the entire sphere to a rectangle with 2:1 aspect ratio.
EXIF - Exchangeable Image File Format. EXIF data allows camera, lens, exposure information, image description, copyright, etc. to be embedded in an image file.
Exposure blending - A technique to blend several exposure bracketed images in one image
Exposure correction - A technique to derive and correct exposure differences from the overlap region of a panorama
EXR - is a high dynamic range image format created by Industrial Light and Magic
FDRTools - a software for assembling bracketed photos to HDR and tone mapping HDR files
Field of View - The angle in degrees that a projection covers.
Fisheye Projection - A projection where the distance from the centre of the image to a point is proportional to the equivalent spatial angle.
FJPG - is a JPEG flavor that supports display of high dynamic range (HDR) images for PTViewer 3.x
Focal Length - the physical property of a lens which together with the sensor size determines the Field of View
Fulla - a command line tool to batch correct Chromatic aberration, Lens distortion and Vignetting
Gamma - The relation between pixel values and visible brightness.
General panini projection - an adjustable projection that can render convincing simulated perspective views of scenes up to 150 degrees wide, or even wider in some cases
GIF - Graphics Interchange Format. An Image format introduced by compuserve.
Gimp - the GNU Image Manipulation Program, a sophisticated cross platform image editor
GraphicConverter - a useful image manipulation application for Mac OS X and Classic
Halo - light and/or dark seams along strong contrast edges often caused by certain image manipulations.
HDR - high Dynamic Range.
HDR compression - The compression of the Dynamic Range in order to be displayed on a low dynamic range device like monitor or printer.
Heads - Rigs to mount a camera on a tripod in order to pan and tilt around the No-parallax point
Horizontal control points - Control points that define a horizontal line in the output projection.
Hotspots - areas in an interactive panorama that react on user input (mouse click)
Hugin - is an Open Source panorama stitcher and graphical user interface (GUI) for Panorama tools
Hyperfocal distance - The distance on which you have to focus your lens if you want the Depth of Field to stretch to infinity.
Image format - The way image information is stored inside an image file.
Image positioning model - A mathematical model that accounts for the image positions in a panorama
Image Stacking - the process of merging two or more registered images together in order to enhance detail, suppress noise, remove motion artifacts, or otherwise leverage data contained across multiple exposures of the same scene
ImageMagick - a set of tools for image manipulation and conversion
Interpolation - A mathematical way to estimate a value in between two values. In image processing: The pixel color and brightness in between two pixels.
IVRPA - the International Virtual Reality Photography Association
JAR - a file format for distributing Java software.
Java - A programming language, program execution environment and executable program format
JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group wiedely used Image format
Krita - an image editor and paint program similar to the Gimp or Photoshop
Landscape - Image orientation with the longer side in horizontal direction
LCA - A type of lens error generating colored fringes.
Lens correction model - A mathematical model that allows the correction of some lens distortions
Lens distortion - A distortion produced by the lens itself which causes straight lines to be bent in some way.
Lightprobe - Lightprobe image is a spherical panorama made of several blended exposures containing high dynamic range.
Luminance HDR - an open source graphical user interface for Pfstools that aims to provide a workflow for HDR imaging
Mirrors - a list of pages mirroring the content of the former Helmut Dersch panotools page
Nadir - the point directly below the person viewing or below the camera
No-parallax point - The special point that you have to rotate your camera around, to avoid parallax errors. Commonly (and falsely) referred to as the Nodal Point.
Nodal Point - Wrongly used for the Entrance pupil or the No-parallax point.
Nona - is a drop-in replacement for PTStitcher and is part of Hugin
NPP adapters - A specialised rig to rotate the camera around the No-parallax point.
Object Movie - "Inverted panorama" where you can move around an object.
OpenEXR - is a high dynamic range image format created by Industrial Light and Magic
Optical axis - The center longitudinal axis of an optical system.
Optimization - Optimization is the process of determining the necessary warping for an image pair in order to align given control point pairs
Pano12 - the current panotools core library
Pano2QTVR - a program to make QuickTime VR and Flash interactive panoramas
Panorama - An image of a very wide or even surround scene or with a typical Aspect Ratio
Panorama formats - The format of a panorama is defined in broad terms by the projection
Panorama tools - A free suite of programs and libraries originally written by professor Helmut Dersch
PanoTools - A free suite of programs and libraries originally written by professor Helmut Dersch
PanoTools Anti Aliasing Filters - Since version 2.7.10 the PanoTools library contains several interpolation filters that avoid aliasing.
Parallax - Foreground shift in two images shot from the same scene but from different points
Partial Panorama - An image of a very wide or even surround scene or with a typical Aspect Ratio
Perspective distortion - Image distortion caused by the fact that a 3-dimensional world is mapped to a 2-dimensional image
Pfstmo - a set of programs implementing different tone mapping operators.
Pfstools - a set of command line (and one GUI) programs for reading, writing, manipulating and viewing high-dynamic range HDR images and video frames
Philopod - basically a piece of string tied around the no-parallax point on the lens with a weight at the other end of the string
Philosphere - A way to map a spherical panorama on the outside of an approximated sphere invented by Philo
Photomatix - a Tone mapping and HDR generation photoshop plugin and
standalone program from HDRSoft
Pincushion distortion - A lens distortion which causes straight lines outside the image center to be bent inwards (like a pincushion).
Pitch - Angle up-and-down (above and below horizon). See also Roll and Yaw.
PNG - Portable Network Graphics Image format
Portrait - Image orientation with the longer side in vertical direction
PPI - Dots Per Inch - Pixel density when printing images.
Projections - Different possibilities to get a two-dimensional image of the three-dimensional world around us.
PSD - a proprietary image format by Adobe Inc used by Photoshop and some other Adobe products
PTblender - a command-line tool that implements just the colour and brightness correction functionality of PTmender (a replacement for PTStitcher).
PTmender - a replacement for Helmut Dersch's PTStitcher. It is fully Open Source
PTOptimizer - Panorama tools image position and correction parameters optimizer. Script driven.
PTStitcher - Main panorama tools stitcher application. Script driven.
PTV - PTViewer Image format, supported by PTViewer version 2.8L from Fulvio Senore
PTViewer - is the equirectangular and cylindrical panorama viewer originally distributed with the Panorama tools package
QImage - a commercial Windows application for printing up to 100000 pixels wide images on roll paper even across paper size limitations
QTVR - QuickTime Virtual Reality is a subset of the functionality of Apple Quicktime
QTVRAS - a Classic only program by Apple to stitch images and output in different QuickTime VR formats
Quicktime - Apple's multimedia technologie.
RAW - a group of some hundred proprietary image formats containg unprocessed sensor data from digital cameras.
REALVIZ Stitcher - a commercial panoramic stitching product available for both Mac OSX and Windows
Rectilinear Projection - A projection in which every straight line in the world stays straight in the image.
Reflection mapping - simulating a complex mirroring surface by means of a texture image, preferable a spherical panorama.
Remapping - the process of changing the image geometry in order to fit to the adjacent images that should contribute to a panorama.
RGBE - is a HDR image format invented by Greg Ward Larson for his Radiance rendering software
Roll - Rotation angle around the lens axis. See also Pitch and Yaw.
Sharpening - an image manipulation technique which increases apparent sharpness by increasing local contrast
Shockwave - Macromedia's first and most successful multimedia player prior to the advent of Macromedia Flash
SmartBlend - an application for seamless image blending by Michael Norel
Spherical - A panorama format that can contain the whole sphere around the viewer.
Spherical resolution - What spherical panorama resolution can I obtain from a certain fisheye/camera combination.
SPi-V - a hardware accelerated panoramic viewing engine created by fieldOfView
Stereographic Projection - an alternative fisheye Projection which is more
suitable for printing than standard fisheye images
Stitching - the process of aligning, remapping and blending images together in order to form a seamless panorama
Straight line control points - Control points that define a straight line in the output projection.
Swing rod - A swing rod is a device for stabilising a camera position around the no-parallax point without needing a tripod
TCA - A type of lens error generating colored fringes.
The General Panini Projection - an adjustable projection that can render convincing simulated perspective views of scenes up to 150 degrees wide, or even wider in some cases
TIFF - Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) is a widely used and open image format used to store and exchange digital images of all kinds.
Tlalli - a recent fork of Panotools that wants to focus in the remapping part
of panorama generation as opposed to the registration
Tone mapping - Technique for reproducing the appearance of images having a higher dynamic range than the reproducing media (e.g. prints or standard monitors).
UFRaw - a GUI for reading RAW files from digital cameras
Vertical control points - Control points that define a vertical line in the output projection.
Vignetting - Light fall-off in the corners of images
Virtual bracketing - saving several images with different exposure settings created from the same raw file.
Wavy distortion - A distortion produced by the lens itself which causes straight lines to be bent in waves.
White balance - the adjustment of the color temperature of an image in order to achieve a white display of objects that are usually percieved as white
World Wide Panorama - a panoramic photographing event taking place four times a year on http://www.worldwidepanorama.com
WWP - a panoramic photographing event taking place four times a year on http://www.worldwidepanorama.com
XMP - Extensible Metadata Platform is a file format for storing arbitrary metadata related to digital media files.
Yaw - Panning angle, left-and-right. See also Pitch and Roll.
Zenith - the point directly above the person viewing or above the camera.