High resolution partial panoramas

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Revision as of 13:17, 1 December 2004 by Smensch01 (talk) (Setting control points and calculate images)
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This is just what I do; please feel free to change it here and add and correct and do whatever is done in a Wiki. Have fun. I set a link to Thomas Niemann's website, I hope that's ok.

This workflow shows the steps necessary to create high resolution partial panoramas for print.


  • Camera
  • Tripod
  • Panoramic tripod head
  • Remote shutter release
  • Enough storage capacity (or film for analog cameras)

Calibrating and Learning the equipment

If you know how to use your equipment and if you use it the right way, this saves you much time of post processing. This is true for all panoramas, but especially those described here tend to consist of a large number of images with a large number or errors.

Calibrate your panoramic head with your camera. If you have a zoom lens, make sure you set the zoom to an exactly reproducible value. Talking about �all in one� camera, some of these have an initial zoom setting they will set when you turn them on. Use this setting if you don�t want to use the maximum or minimum zoom.

Shoot some test images before you shoot something you want to keep. And write a short list of things you have to do when you set up.

The final resolution depends on the resolution of your camera and the field of view of the photos you take. See this calculator to calculate the sizes.

Taking the photos

Compose your image. Choose the clipping you want. And better take some more images than necessary, you can�t go back and take some extra photos later.

Set up and level your equipment. Set your camera to manual mode, manual white balance and manual focus. Choose a focus that is right for the main item of the panorama and choose the largest aperture you can to maximize the depth of field (is this correct???)

If you shoot multiple rows � which you most likely need to do not to have a narrow stripe of an image when you�re done � shoot all rows from left to right or from right to left. Don�t go zigzag with the rows.

Shoot as quickly as you can. The faster you are, the lesser are the differences between the photos. Differences are mainly lighting differences that are caused by moving clouds or simply the moving sun. The eye doesn�t recognize the change very well but you will recognize it on your photos.

A hint for shooting a coastline: Shoot everything else first, maybe even the coastline. But go back and try to shoot the photos when the waves look similar. That saves much post processing and just looks more realistic.

Pre processing before stitching

It does not really matter if you do this step before you set the control points or afterwards. Just do it before you render the images.

If you know the vignetting effect of your lens, remove the vignetting from the photos. (See how to obtain vignetting calibration samples and remove vignetting.)

Remove Noise from your images before you merge them. There are two basic types of noise for digital cameras: One is the �normal� color and luminance noise that simply occurs in most situations. This noise is not necessarily constant among a number of images. The best way to remove it is to use a noise reduction tool like Noiseware. For more infos see ePaperPress noise reduction (go to Preparation -> Noise Reduction).

The second type of noise occurs with long exposure times. You will most likely recognize it as green dots when shooting at night. This type of noise tends not to move. The dots are at the same position over many images. But it increases by the time you use the CCD, which means the first image of your panorama will have the least, the last one the most noise. To remove this noise, take a black image in between the shots. If you have enough capacity, take one after each shot, otherwise every ten shots or so. Taking one black image after each other also leads to even more noise because the CCD chip is used even more heavily. Find an approximation that suits your needs before taking the first �real� night panorama. Set these black images in a Layer on top of a normal shot and set it to difference. This should remove that noise. See removing noise due to long exposures for more details.

To keep the quality of the images, don�t compress them much after this step. If you have enough space, save them as TIFF files. You can use JPEG images to increase the speed and decrease the memory usage of the PanoTools GUI application in the next step.

Setting control points and calculate images

Please refer to a tutorial for your GUI on how to use it.

Save the resulting images as "Multiple TIFF" or as "Layered PSD" with the optimum suggested resolution.

Merging images together

I personally like to have full control over the process and am not really satisfied with the results enblend generates although they are good enough for many people and definitely for many online usages of panoramas. Hence we use Photoshop here to merge the images together.

Load the PSD file if PanoTools generated one or import the TIFFs in a single PSD file using Erik Krause�s stitching actions.

Some work to do here...


Don�t crop the whole image to the maximum size. Sometimes you missed some images to the left and right or your tripod was not leveled. This decreases the maximum size of the image. But in this case you usually get a larger height if you decrease the width and vice versa. So crop for the desired output ratio rather than for the whole image.

... maybe we need an image to explain this here ...



Some notes on increasing the dynamic range